Concordia College
Moorhead, MN

Religion 223D
Dr. Ernest L. Simmons, Jr.
Office: Academy 210 and by appointment
Phone: 299-3430
Office Hours:  MWF 2:00-3:00 TH 11:30-12:30 

The Legacy of Luther
Tentative Syllabus and Course Outline


I. Purpose:

A. To acquaint the student with the historical events and theological reflection of  Martin Luther's life and times and there ongoing legacy.

B. To develop the significance of Luther's legacy for today by focusing on several of  the major themes of his thought such as: Law/Gospel, the Freedom of a Christian, the Theology of the Cross, the Doctrine of the Two Kingdoms, and his understanding of liberation especially social justice in relation to womenís rights, the environment, and German national identity.

C. To assist the student to grow in understanding and expression of his/her own faith position through careful critique and analysis of the material addressed, including the thought of Luther and the Lutheran Tradition.

II. Course Texts:

A. Heiko Obermann, Luther: Man Between God and the Devil, (MBGD)
B. Steven Ozment, Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution, (PBR)
C. George W. Forell, Martin Luther: Theologian of the Church, (TC)
D. John Dillenberger, Martin Luther: Selections from His Writings. (ML)
E. Eric Gritsch, Fortress Introduction to Lutheranism. (FIL)
F. Library Reserve: William Fawcett Hill, Learning Thru Discussion.

  IV. Course Requirements:

a. Assigned readings and responsible participation in class discussion. The reading is based upon a reading speed of 20 pages/hour and about 80 pages per week. There is a total required reading of about 850 pages leaving the remainder for the expository analysis papers.

b. Three written essay unit exams covering both the lectures and assigned readings.

c. Two expository analysis papers (5-7 pages) each dealing with a topic from one of the course texts and a selected scholarly article.

d. One class presentation (ten minutes each, done in teams of two-three) and reflection paper on a theological/cultural context addressed in the assigned reading for a given

class period. NOTE: Students going on the May Seminar must choose a topic relevant to a site to be visited during the seminar.

e. Five preparation papers (1-2 pages) for class small group discussion.
NOTE: The preparation paper for a given discussion session will be turned in at the end of that session.

V. Grading:

Total Possible - 750 points

a. Examinations - 300 points total [100 points each]
b. Expository Analysis Papers - 250 points [125 points each].
c. Class Presentation - 100 points [50 points presentation and 50 points reflection paper]
d. Class discussion preparation papers - 100 points [20 points each]
e. Extra credit paper - an additional 5-7 page comparative reaction paper to two of the course texts may be done with the grade averaged in with the examinations. Guidelines and criteria may be picked up in my office and the paper is due the last
day of class.

VI. Course Due Dates:
The first examination will be on 15 February, the second on 2 April and the third during final exam week. The expository analysis papers are due 22 February and 11 April. The preparation papers will occur during the course and at least two class days' notice will be given before a paper is due. Class presentations will be signed up for during the first week of class.

Assignments are due on time and normally there will be some reduction in grade for late papers or exams. Exceptions to this rule will be granted in special cases such as illness or a death in the immediate family, but arrangements for late assignments should be made prior to the due date if at all possible. In fairness to the majority of the class, assignments over one day late are subject to a serious reduction of one-half grade level per class day and after one week may not be accepted.

VII. Format of the Preparation Paper:

The 'cognitive map' found in William Fawcett Hill's Learning Thru Discussion provides the basic outline for working out a preparation paper (on reserve in the Library). These papers will follow either the following format or a one page "Discussion Preparation Guide" form passed out in class. Both will be used during the course.

Pick out MAJOR concepts and terms (Not "DICTIONARY" terms) you are not totally certain about, but try to spell out what you think they mean in the context of the reading.

Summarize what you understand to be the central point of the reading. 

Try to pinpoint what you understand to be the major subtopics that the author touches upon in the pursuit of the central point. Under each appropriate subtopic note the questions you have.

In what ways does this reading touch upon other areas of knowledge that you have?
Are there points of integration with other insights, fact, or observations you have already encountered? Do you see pertinent implications?

Evaluate the reading by asking yourself both general questions (such as those suggested below) and questions directly related to the reading assignment. These specific evaluations might have to do with the way the author sees an issue, the
point of view, the relevance of what he/she touches upon to the contemporary situations as you see it and the like. Examples of general questions which can be brought to bear on individual readings might include:

What have I learned that I did not understand before?
In what way(s) does this affect my attitudes as well as my understanding?
At what point does the author's argument break down?
Seem beside the point?
What kind of response does the author's argument elicit in me?

VIII. Purpose and Criteria for Expository Analysis Papers:

A. Purpose: The expository analysis paper is intended to assist you in doing two things: first, to be able to clearly and concisely summarize the argument of an author, and second, to critique and evaluate that argument in terms of its clarity, coherence and relevance. The primary purpose of the paper is to facilitate engagement with the author beyond the sheer accumulation of information. Accordingly, the primary emphasis is upon critique and analysis and not upon summary of the author's position or argument.

B. Procedure:
1. Article: Select a scholarly article from the library dealing with a topic covered in one of the course texts. Please consult the Religion Index to find a suitable article listed by either subject or author. 

2. Thesis: State the thesis of your paper in one sentence in the opening paragraph of the paper. It should indicate what you think about the article or the point you want to make about the article as a whole.

3. Summary: Summarize the author's argument in one - two pages. It is imperative that one understand the position one is to critique before one begins the critique. To do this concisely not only indicates a grasp of the position to be critiqued but also an
ability to cut away the excess argumentation so as to get to the heart of the argument and its supporting evidence.

4. Analysis: Analyze the content (not form) of the authorís argument in four to five pages in light of the following three criteria:

a) Clarity. This refers to the distinctness and intelligibility of the author's agument. Is it focused so as to be understandable and intelligible?

b) Coherence. This refers to the basic integration of the main points of the argument. Are they all interrelated and necessary such that each follows from or requires the others?

c) Relevance. This refers to the accountability of the argument to human experience. Does the author address real human needs and issues? Does the argument help resolve any serious social or personal human problem?

C. Suggested Resources:

1. Journals - The best place to look for journal articles on your topic is in Religion Index One, located in Case Number 3 in the reference section of the library. It indexes every article in religion printed in the world in a given year, bound in two year volumes. You then need to look under the subject heading for your topic and it will give you various journal articles (abbreviations are explained in the front). Our library has most of the major journals published in English, you can check the
printouts to confirm if we have a given journal and year. Some suggested journals are: Dialog, Word and World, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Journal of Biblical Literature, Interpretation, Journal of Religion, Theology
Today, Union Seminary Quarterly Review, Journal of Christian Ethics, Church History, Christian Century, Christianity Today, Christianity and Crisis, Sojourners and ZYGON: Journal of Science and Religion.

Some additional indexes that may be of use are: Humanities Index, Biography Index, Historical Abstracts, Religious and Theological Abstracts, and Philosopher's Index.

2. Reference Works - These also would be found in the reference section of the library. Some main ones are: The Encyclopedia of Religion, The New Catholic Encyclopedia, The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of World Biography.

3. Web Sites - Project Wittenberg

D. Evaluation: You will be evaluated in light of the following criteria:

1. Analysis 50%
2. Summary 20%
3. Thesis 10%
4. Creativity 10%
5.. Form (style, spelling, grammar) 10%

It is expected that the paper will be between five and seven [5-7] pages in length and employ correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, etc. Please proofread your papers before you turn them in! The paper must also be typed, double-spaced and contain your name and campus address.

NOTE: Plagiarism consists in presenting the writings or ideas of another as your own. If you are in doubt always indicate the reference or source. Plagiarism constitutes grounds for immediate failure of the paper.

IX. Class Presentation: Purpose, Procedure and Evaluation

A. Purpose:
The purpose of class presentations is to accomplish several things. First of all, to stimulate class discussion by providing a prepared response to the course reading for a given class session. Second, to give the entire class a chance to benefit from
your reflection. Third, to give the student some additional experience in formal classroom presentation and discussion.

1. Topic: Sign up with one other student to present discussion reflection on a given class session. This will be done the second week of class on a class sign up sheet.

2. Preparation: working as a team, formulate the issues and questions that you would like to present for class discussion during the thirty minute period of the class presentation. Each student should take approximately one third of the presentation time.

3. Presentation: Each student is to come with a three-four (3-4) page prepared reflection paper on the class material for the evening which is to form the basis for their 10 minute presentation. This paper is to be typed and turned in at the end of the class session for which it is prepared. The presentation and paper should include:

a. Issues: Two or three major issues the student wants to raise from the material,
b. Reflection: The Student's own thoughts about those issues, e.g., why important, problematic, etc.
c. Questions: Several very specific discussion questions which the student would like the class to address.

4. Discussion: After the presentation the class will divide into three small groups and each presenter will then take responsiblity for one of the group discussions. General class discussion will then follow as time permits.

C. Evaluation: The presentation and paper are worth a total of 100 points as an individual grade for each presenter, 50 points each.

Presentation and Paper Criteria:

Conciseness of topic and presentation 20%
Clarity of summary 20%
Comprehension of subject matter 20%
Critique of issues and methods involved 20%
Communication of material and information 20%

X. Course Outline:




1. Introduction : Jan. 4


German Life and Culture JOINT SESSION Jan. 9

2. Introduction to

Lutheranism: MOVIE Jan. 11

Historical FIL Part I Jan.16-18

Theological FIL Part II Jan. 23-25


Church and Nazi Germany JOINT SESSION Jan. 30


3. Luther's Life MBGD Chs. 1-13 Feb. 1-13


EXAM #1 Feb. 15


4. Lutherís Times PBR, Chs. 1-4 Feb. 20-22

The Reformation Envisioned

First Analysis Paper Due Feb. 22


MID-SEMESTER BREAK Feb. 24 - March 3


Lutherís Times PBR, Chs. 5-9 Mar. 5-7

The Reformation Enacted

Contemporary Relevance TC, Chs. 1-2, 6-9, 12 Mar. 12-14


Women and Family JOINT SESSION Mar. 19


5. Lutherís Thought

A. Law/Gospel TC 3, 18-19 Mar. 21 - 28

ML pp. 99-165

Exam #2 Apr. 2


EASTER BREAK April 4 - 8


B.Christian Liberty TC 4-5, Apr. 9 - 11

ML pp. 42-85, 86-96


Second Analysis Paper Due Apr. 11


C. The Church JOINT SESSION Apr. 16

TC 13-14


D. Sacramental TC 15 Apr. 18

ML pp. 228-239, 249-314

E. Two Kingdoms TC 20,21, 23 Apr. 23 - 25

ML pp. 363-402

Exam #3 Final Exam Week




XI. Academic Integrity:

Students are expected to be guided by the highest expressions of academic integrity in completing course requirements. These expectations are set forth in Academic Integrity at Concordia College. Students who show a disregard for academic integrity and are detected should expect to be penalized by receiving failing grades (in such cases make-up is not possible). Each violation of academic integrity will be reported to the Academic Deanís Office and the offender will be placed on probationary status for one year.


Violations of academic dishonesty include cheating, plagiarism, falsification, facilitating othersí violations and impeding. These violations are fully defined in Academic Integrity at Concordia College, pp. 11-13 and should be carefully studied.


These definitions were developed in a North American cultural context. Other cultures define forms of academic dishonesty differently. International students studying at Concordia, however, are expected to be guided by North American norms of academic integrity. Any student who is unclear about the application of these norms in the completion of a particular assignment should consult the course instructor.


XII. A Select Bibliography on Luther and the Reformation

[See Attached].